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Here's Why eBPF Matters in Cloud Computing Featured

Here's Why eBPF Matters in Cloud Computing person holding lens

eBPF, short for "extended Berkeley Packet Filter," is a relatively new Linux kernel technology that has been gaining traction in cloud computing. It allows for efficient, safe, and flexible execution of user-defined programs within the Linux kernel. This has numerous benefits for cloud computing, including improved networking performance, greater security, and increased flexibility in the management of cloud environments.

How eBPF works

eBPF-based programs are event-driven and are attached to the code path. This path has triggers known as hooks, whose role is to execute any attached eBPF program when passed. Some key examples of hooks include networks, kernel tracepoints, function entries and system calls. It was initially used to improve observability and security during filtering network packets. This has, however, changed, becoming a way of making the implementation of user-supplied code safe, convenient and better performing.

Advantages of eBPF

  1. Ability to improve networking performance

One of the key advantages of eBPF is its ability to improve networking performance. Traditional packet filtering techniques, such as those used by the Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF), can be slow and CPU-intensive. eBPF, on the other hand, allows for much more efficient packet filtering by executing user-defined programs directly within the Linux kernel. This means that eBPF-based packet filtering can be much faster and require less CPU power than traditional methods.

  1. Improved security

In addition to improved performance, eBPF also offers greater security for cloud environments. Because eBPF programs are executed directly within the Linux kernel, they have access to a limited set of kernel resources and functions. This makes it much harder for malicious code to compromise the kernel or gain access to sensitive data. Additionally, eBPF programs are verified by the kernel before they are allowed to run, which helps to prevent the execution of malicious or otherwise unsafe code.

  1. Flexibility

Another important benefit of eBPF is its flexibility. With eBPF, users can write their own programs to perform various tasks within the Linux kernel. This allows for much greater customization and control over the behaviour of a cloud environment, making it possible to optimize performance, security, and other aspects of the system to meet specific needs.

  1. Programmability

eBPF provides a rich environment which allows new layers to be added. Moreover, data can be stored between eBPF events instead of dumping it like other tracers usually do since the code is directly run in the kernel.


Although eBPF is not a solution to everything or any project, it has some disadvantages that can frustrate working with it. These disadvantages include the following:

  1. It is restricted to Linux and a recent kernel

eBPF was developed for the Linux kernel and is oriented around it. That affects portability compared to other tracers. As such, you need a recent kernel because anything older than v4.13 will not be able to use it.

  1. Sandbox programs are limited

eBPF gets its increased security by limiting the resources that programs can access. However, through limitations, there are parts that the operating system a program can access. Functionality is also limited.

This technology improves observability, networking and security in the Linux kernel. This makes it useful in distributed environments such as the cloud. Through monitoring from the kernel layer, many cloud challenges are solved. It also provides deeper visibility and data accuracy.

In conclusion, eBPF is an important technology in cloud computing. Its ability to improve networking performance, enhance security, and provide greater flexibility makes it an essential tool for optimizing its cloud environment. As eBPF continues gaining popularity, it will likely become an increasingly important part of the cloud computing landscape.

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Scott Koegler

Scott Koegler is Executive Editor for PMG360. He is a technology writer and editor with 20+ years experience delivering high value content to readers and publishers. 

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